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PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The project is intended to detect the location of a fault in underground cable lines from the base station in kilometers.

In the urban areas, the electrical cables run underground instead of running overhead. Whenever any fault occurs within the underground cable, it becomes difficult to detect the exact location of the fault for the process of repairing that particular cable. The proposed system finds the point of the exact location of the fault.

The project uses the standard concept of Ohms law, i.e., when a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines), then the current would vary depending upon the location of the short circuit fault in the cable.

This system uses a microcontroller of the 8051 family and a rectified power supply. Here, the current sensing circuit in combination with the resistors is interfaced to the microcontroller with the help of an ADC device for representing the cable length in Km. The fault creation is made by a set of switches.  The relays are controlled by a relay driver IC, which is used to check the cable line. The 16x2 LCD display connected to the microcontroller is used to display the information.

In case of a short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across the series resistors changes accordingly. It is then fed to an ADC to develop the precise digital data which is directed to the programmed microcontroller of the 8051 family in order to display the same  in kilometers.

The project in future can be implemented by using a capacitor in an AC circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate the open circuited cable.

PROJECT HIGHLIGHTS
ADC Cable Fault Distance Locator.
Call/mail for Tech Support from 10 am - 7 pm IST.
Easy to use, Self-explanatory kit.
All-inclusive solution kit.
Extensive audio-visuals available.
Branding-free material.
Pre-programmed Microcontroller.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Hardware Requirements
  • 8051 series Microcontroller
  • LCD
  • Crystal
  • ADC
  • Relays
  • Relay Driver IC
  • Transformer
  • Diodes
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • LEDs
  • Slide switches
Software Requirements
  • Keil Compiler
  • Language: Embedded C or Assembly.
Q & A
Q:  I want to know whether Resistance or Cable is used here?
A:  It uses resistance and not a cable.
Q:  How is the distance measured?
A:  Distance is calculated by the level of fault current. The project is designed to compare the accuracy against known distance . However any distance can be measured if one creates a fault at that KM , say for example 3.8 KMs. But in that case one must use the exact value of resistor for that km distance. That is the reason why we have taken known resistors proportional to known distances.
Q:  Can we do it by using actual cable / wire instead of resistor? Can this project be practically implemented to underground cables? What kind of cables can be used for this project?
A:  One cannot take the actual wire as the wire resistance would be too low for which one has to feed a large amount of current for getting an appreciable voltage drop (I*R) for the ADC to sense. The project is designed to compare the accuracy against known distance. However any distance can be measured if one creates a fault at that KM, say for example 3.8 KMs. But in that case one must use the exact value of resistor for that km distance. That is the reason why we have taken known resistors proportional to known distances instead of a cable.
Q:  Which microcontroller is used in this project?
A:  A 40 pin microcontroller from 8051 family is used in this project.
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