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The flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) – a  technology based on power electronics – proposes an opportunity to improve controllability, stability, and power transfer capability of AC transmission systems. This article presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of the FACTS controllers. This paper provides an extensive analysis on the research and improvements in the power-system stability development using FACTS controllers. Several technical publications related to the FACTS installations have been highlighted and performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been discussed. Moreover, some of the utility experience, real-world installations, and semiconductor technology developments have been out lined. The Static VAR Compensation under FACTS uses TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitors) based on shunt compensation duly controlled by a programmed microcontroller. This proposed system demonstrates power-factor compensation using thyristor-switched capacitors.

The power-factor compensation in SVC is completed by large-rotating machines such as synchronous condenser. On the other hand, it is inefficient because by using such large rotating parts the machines may get damaged quickly.

Shunt Capacitive Compensation – In electrical power system, shunt capacitive compensation is widely employed to reduce the active and reactive power losses and to ensure satisfactory voltage levels during excessive reactive loading condition. Shunt capacitive compensation devices are normally distributed throughout transmission or distribution systems to minimize losses and voltage drops. Power factor will be in a lagging condition when an inductive load is connected to the transmission line, due to lagging load current. A capacitor that draws current leading the source voltage is connected for compensation. The time lag between the zero-voltage pulse and the zero-current pulse are fed to two interrupt pins of the 8-bit microcontroller of the 8051 family. The instruction that has been preprogrammed in the MC that takes over to activate applicable number of the opto-isolators which is duly interfaced to back to back SCRs through which the capacitors are brought on to the circuit to bring them as required shunt capacitors into the load circuit until the power factor reaches its unity.  

Furthermore, the project can be enhanced to thyristor-controlled triggering for a precise PF correction instead of a thyristor switching in steps.

Thyristor based APFC.
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Easy to use, Self-explanatory kit.
All-inclusive solution kit.
Extensive audio-visuals available.
Branding-free material.
Pre-programmed Microcontroller.
Hardware Requirements
  • 8051 series Microcontroller
  • Op-amps
  • LCD
  • Shunt capacitors
  • SCR
  • opto-isolator
  • Current Transformer
  • Inductor
  • Crystal
  • Slide Switches
  • Resistors
  • Capacitors
  • Diodes
  • Transformer
  • Voltage Regulator
  • Lamp
Software Requirements
  • Keil compiler
  • Languages:Embedded C or Assembly
Q & A
Q:  Why lamp is used in series with the choke?
A:  We use an inductor and a lamp. Inductor is for the lagging current and lamp is for the linear load. As the type of inductor used is nothing but a tube light choke, it is not possible to use the same across the mains supply of 230 volts directly. Hence the same lamp comes in series with the choke during inductor operation. However in linear load selection, the inductor is bypassed by the switch provided .Thus while the inductor is bypassed and only, lamp remains in the circuit. As regards to other wattage of lamps to be used variation of lagging current is possible so the different pf. More the wattage of the lamp, more becomes the lagging current. But never exceed more than 200 watts of lamp as it may result in burning of the choke.
Q:  What is FACTS?
A:  FACTS or flexible AC transmission system involves use of power electronic devices to ensure smooth transmission of AC power by compensating the reactive power.
Q:  What is SVC?
A:  SVC is static variable compensation using thyristors to control a reactor or shunt capacitive bank.
Q:  What is TSC?
A:  TSC stands for ThyristorSwitched Capacitor, used for switching appropriate number of shunt capacitors in lines to improve power factor
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