While driving on highway, traveler should not exceed maximum speed limit allowed for their vehicle. However accidents keep happening due to speed violation since the drivers tends to ignore their speedometers. The speed checker will come for the highway traffic police as it will only provide digital display in accordance with a vehicle speed but also give an alarm if the vehicle exceeds the permitted speed for the highway. This article presents a rash driving detection system to detect rash driving on highways and to aware the traffic authorities in case of any contravention. In past, there are several devices to detect rash driving on highways but, most of the advances need human interference and need a lot of effort, which is hard to execute. In this, we intend to design a system namely speed checker to detect rash driving on highways.
Speed Checker to Rash Driving Detection System on Highways
The hardware requirements of this praposed system mainly include; Transformer (230 – 12 v ac), Voltage regulator (LM 7805), Rectifier, Filter, Microcontroller (at89s52/at89c51), IR LEDs, Photodiodes, LCD, Piezo-buzzer, Relay, BC547, LED, 1N4007, Resistors and Capacitors.
The circuit uses normal power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from 230v to 12v and 4-diodes shape a Bridge Rectifier that delivers pulsating DC which is then filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470microf to 100microF.
The filtered DC being unregulated IC LM7805 is used to obtain 5v constant at its pin3 irrespective of i/p DC changeable from 9v to 14v.
The regulated 5volts DC is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10 micro f for any sound so generated by the circuit.One LED is connected of this 5v point in series with a 330ohms resistor to the GND i.e. negative voltage to specify the availability of 5v power supply.
- It is a smaller computer
- Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports…
- Well-suited with MCS®-51 Products
- 8K-Bytes of ISP (In-System Programmable) Flash Memory
- Staying Power: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
- Operating Range is 4.0V-5.5V
- Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz- 33 MHz
- 3-level Program Memory Lock
- Internal RAM: 256 x 8-bit
- 32-Programmable I/O Lines
- 16-bit Timer/Counters-3
- Interrupt Sources-8
- Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
- Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
- Watchdog Timer
- Dual Data Pointer
- Fast Programming Time
- A photodiode is a kind of photo detector competent of converting light into any current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.
- Photodiodes are related to regular semiconductor diodes apart from that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to let light to achieve the sensitive part of the device.
- An IR LED or IR transmitter is a special purpose LED that transmits IR rays in 760 nm wavelength range.
Such LEDs are typically prepared of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. They, along with infrared receivers, are usually used as sensors.
- The exterior is similar as a general LED. Since the human being eye cannot see the IR radiations, it is not feasible for a person to recognize whether the LED is working or not, not like a common
To beat this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used. The camera can demonstrate us the IR rays being radiated from the IR LED in a circuit.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
- Most common LCDs are 16×2 and 20×2 displays which are connected to the microcontrollers.
- This means 16-characters per line by 2-lines and 20-characters per line by 2-lines, respectively.
- The typical is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which gets data from an exterior source.
- If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will need 11-data lines (3-control lines plus the 8-lines for the data bus)
- The 3-control lines are referred to as EN, RS, & RW
EN=Enable, used to tell the LCD that you are transferring it data
- RS=Register Select (When RS is low, data is treated as a command. When RS is High, data being sent is text data )
- R/W=Read/Write (When RW is low, the data written to the LCD. When RW is High, the data reading to the LCD)
- LEDs or light emitting diodes are semiconductor devices finished out of silicon. When current flows through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light bulbs generate light by heating a metal filament awaiting its white hot.
- The advantages of an LEDs over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption, improved robustness, longer lifetime, smaller size and also faster switching.
- It is a electromagnetic switch
- Used to run the electrical devices
- Copper core magnetic flux plays major role here
- The connections of relay switche are generally labeled COM, NC and NO
- COM (Common), for all time connects to this; it is the moving part of the itch.
- NC (Normally closed), COM is connected to this when the relay coil is OFF.
- NO (Normally Open), COM is connected to this when the relay coil is ON
This buzzer is an audio signaling device, which has a piezo part and an oscillating circuit within which oscillates the piezo brass bottom plate, which when specified voltage difference produces sound of a predefined frequency.
- These high consistency Piezo buzzers are appropriate to general electronics gears.
- Solid, pin terminal sort Piezo buzzer with 4 Khz o/p.
- Pin type terminal structure allows direct mounting onto PCBs (printed circuit boards).
- Keil is an ARM Company makes C-compilers, macro assemblers, integrated environments, debuggers, real-time kernels, simulators, evaluation boards, and emulators for XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3, and 8051 MCU families.
- Compilers are programs used to change a High Level Language to object code. Desktop compilers generate an o/p object code for the fundamental microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.
- The programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer).
- For instance compilers for Dos platform is diverse from the Compilers for Unix platform So if one wants to describe a compiler then compiler is a program that converts source code into object code.
Working of the Project
Basically the proposed system includes two laser infrared sensor pairs, which are mounted oppositely on the main road. This sensed speed is fed to the Microcontroller which shows the time in use by the vehicle in crossing the necessary distance from one pair to the other from and also the speed of the vehicle.
In case the vehicle speed crosses the limits a buzzer gives beeps to indicate that the vehicle has crossed the speed limit. A relay is also activated when any vehicle crosses the speed limit.
From the above information, finally we can conclude that it will maintain the human life’s safety on the road. It can also be used on the bridge for the speed control.It also reduces the troubles of traffic police division and make ease to control the rash driving detection on highways. We hope that you have got a better understan ding of this cocnept. Furthermore, any doubts regarding this concept or to implement electrical projects please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what are the applications of speed checker to detect rash driving detection on highways?