While driving on highway, traveler should not exceed maximum speed limit allowed for their vehicle. However accidents keep happening due to speed violation since the drivers tends to ignore their speedometers. The speed checker will come for the highway traffic police as it will only provide digital display in accordance with a vehicle speed but also give an alarm if the vehicle exceeds the permitted speed for the highway. This article presents a rash driving detection system to detect rash driving on highways and to aware the traffic authorities in case of any contravention. In past, there are several devices to detect rash driving on highways but, most of the advances need human interference and need a lot of effort, which is hard to execute. In this, we intend to design a system namely speed checker to detect rash driving on highways.
The automatic door opening systems are used in commercial buildings, shopping malls, theaters, etc. These systems are used to open and close the door when a person comes near to the entry of the door and close it after the person entered into the door. This kind of system can be built by using various kinds of sensors such as PIR sensors, Radar sensors, Laser sensors,and Infrared sensors etc. This project uses a PIR sensor to sense the infrared (IR) energy generated by the human body.When somebody come close to the door, the IR energy sensed by the sensor transforms and triggers the sensor to open and close the door routinely. Further, the indication sent to microcontroller to control the door.
Till the last decades, a million miles of cables are wound in the air across the country. But now it is placed in the underground, which is higher to an earlier method. Because, underground cables are not affected by any opposing weather condition like heavy rainfall, pollution, snow, and storm, etc. But, when any fault occurs in cable, it is very difficult to discover the exact place of the faulty due to not knowing the exact location of the cable. Currently, the world is becoming digitized so this project is proposed to find the fault cable location in a digital way. When the fault arises, the method of repairing connected to that specific cable is very difficult.
To understand the roots of SCADA, we must know the industrial organization’s problems which are trying to solve. Before the SCADA concept was introduced in the mid-20th century, several industrial floors, plants, and remote sites depend on personnel to physically control and monitor apparatus through analog dials and push buttons. As industries began to scale out in size, solutions were required for equipment controlling over long distances. The group of Industries has started to use relays and timers to offer some level of supervisory control without taking to send people to remote sites to network with each device.
While timers and relays solved several problems by giving narrow automation functionality, more problems began to rise as organizations sustained to scale out. The reconfiguration of Relays and timers were difficult. A more effective and fully automatic control system and checking were needed. The term “SCADA” was invented in the early 1970s, and the growth of microprocessors and PLCs during that period increased enterprises’ capability to monitor & control automated processes more than ever before.
Most of the systems need at least one phase of amplification. Hence amplifiers can be used in almost all the electronic devices. These are the devices that raise the amplitude of the i/p signal. The o/p of the power supply is controlled by the Amplifier. These can only increase the amplitude and the other parameters like frequency and shape remain constant. The main function of an amplifier is to increase the amplitude of the signal without changing the parameters like the shape of the wave or frequency. Amplifiers are one of the most frequently used circuits in electronics and achieve a variety of functions in great several electronic systems. There are numerous types of amplifiers accessible. But they can be famous by the type of signal they amplify. The different types of amplifiers can be classified by the kind of function they execute. The important characteristics of an amplifier include bandwidth, noise, skew rate, gain, stability, linearity, efficiency, output dynamic range.